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Platinum Medal


PLATINUM Mrs. Steele



PLATINUM Markowitz







Scotland Yard

Prof. Michael Andregg

Mr. Estolano "Ben" Benavides

Mr. Scott Bird

Ms. Karen George

Dr. Edvard Jacob

Mr. Kevin Scheid

Congressman Rob Simmons

United Nations


The Netherlands

South Africa



Dr. Douglas M. Johnston

Dr. Bert Little

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

Mr. Paul van Tongeren

Dr. Paul Ray

Mr. William Greider

Mr. David Kaplan

Mr. Steve Denning

Dr. Herman E. Daly

Dr. Tore Bjorgo

Mr. Tom Atlee


Republic of South Africa

Mr. Jack Davis

MajGen Patrick Cammaert

Mr. Peter Modafferi

Dr. Simon J. Pak and Dr. John S. Zdanowicz

Mr. Yossef Bodansky

Mr. Tom Copeland

Mr. Johan Truyens

Mr. Arno Reuser

Mr. David Jimenez

Global Futures Partnership

Mr. David Moore and Ms. Lisa Kirzan

Mr. Leonard Paul

Mr. William Hann, BSc (Hons)

Mr. Joseph V. Latella Sr.

Dr. Richard Klavans

Mr. William Crislip

Foreign Military Studies Office (FSMO)

Strategic Studies Institute

Open Source Unit

European Centre for Conflict Prevention

Mr. Guy Kolb

Maj Kristan Wheaton, USA

Mr. William Shawcross, Author

Robert Young Pelton

Researcher A.J. Jongman, Interdisciplinary Research Programme (PIOOM)

Mr. James Bamford, Author

CINC Open Source Advisory Council (COSAC)

Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT)

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

Dr. Dominic J. Farace

Mr. Philippe Lejeune

Commander, Joint Intelligence Center

Director of Intelligence and Information Operations

Satellite Centre

Open Source Intelligence Centre

National Intelligence Service and Ministry of Defense (Joint Award)

Office of Strategic Crime Assessments

National Intelligence Service


LtCol Ian Wing, Chief of Defence Force Fellow

LCdr Sean Connors, USN

Colonel Barbara Fast, U.S. Army

Autometric (Now Boeing Autometric)

National Intelligence Community

Mr. Tom Will

Dr. Mark Maybury

Mr. Harry Collier

Captain Patrick Tyrrell, RN OBE LLB

i2 Ltd.

Metropolitan Police of London (Scotland Yard)

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children

Ministry of the Interior

Open Source Intelligence Long Range Reconnaissance Unit

Servizio Centrale di Investigazione sulla Criminalità Organizzata


Mr. Jurgen Storbeck and Mr. Frans-Jan Mulschlegel

Madame Danielle Cailloux

Commission on Secrecy

Maritime Administration

Loyola College

Monterey Institute of International Studies

Intelligence Community Librarians Committee

Mr. Maurice Botbol

Mr. Stephen Aftergood and Mr. John Pike

Dr. Vipin Gupta and Mr. Frank Pabian

Ms. Alice Cranor

Aspin-Brown Commission

Swedish Open Source Cooperation Forum

Ministry of Defence

Canadian Security and Intelligence Service

Community Open Source Program Office

Captain Patrick George

Mr. Abram Hoebe

Mr. Robert Heibel

Mr. John W. Fisher III

Col James "Snake" Clark, USAF

SPOT Image Corporation


Institute for Scientific Information

Jane's Information Group

Ms. Helen Burwell

Mr. Chris Goggans

Col Mike Pheneger, U.S. Army (Ret.)

National Technical Information Service

Mr. Winn Schwartau

Dr. Stevan Dedijer

Dr. Douglas Englebart

Mr. Emmanuel Goldstein (P)

Dr. James Holden-Rhodes

Dr. Ross Stapleton-Gray

Mr. Tim Hendrickson and PATHFINDER

434th Military Intelligence Detachment

Ministry of the Interior

Dr. Loch Johnson

Mr. David Young

Mr. Rop Gonggrijp

Mr. William McDonald

Mr. Roger Karraker

Mr. Samuel Mercier

Mr. Paul Hoffman

Mr. John Berbrich

Mr. Alessandro Politi

MajGen Ken Minihan, USAF

Mr. William Ruh

Ms. Bonnie Carroll

Ms. Diane Webb

Mr. George Marling

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Golden Candle Awards

The public intelligence and multinational information sharing  revolution is a "bottom up" revolution, and an international revolution.  It turns out--no one could have predicted this--that it was also the first necessary step in bringing the seven tribes of intelligence (national, military, business, law enforcement, academia, NGO-media, and religious) "in from the cold" to talk openly with one another about the need for dramatic changes in sources, methods, and the culture of intelligence.  From this, aided by the Internet technical revolution has emerged "the new craft of intelligence."  Each of the individuals and organizations listed below is part of this total story, with many more yet to be recognized.  They are the heros, and to them go the honors.  The list is in chronological order, from the first awards given in 1992 to the most recent..


Platinum Medal, for Lifetime Achievement in OSINT
This is the final art work that we just approved (21 Dec 05) for the lifetime award in OSINT.

PLATINUM Tofflers, Alvin & Heidi Toffler
Alvin and Heidi Toffler are the original researchers, visionaries, cartographers, path-finders, and mentors for a legion of pioneers who have created the future.  The writing is but the tip of the their influential iceberg--their personal relationships worldwide, and the manner in which they inspire and introduce special people to one another, is without equal in this world.

PLATINUM Mrs. Steele, Mrs. Kathy Steele, Saint

Mrs. Kathy L. Steele has been, since 1988, "home base" for her husband Robert, and mother to three children conceived and raised amidst the turmoil, sweat, tears, and consequences of one man's fight to restore common sense to the U.S. Intelligence Community and other intelligence communities.  Her loyalty, tolerance, good humor, and enormous capacity for dealing with uncertainty mark her as a saint.  Nothing accomplished by her husband would have been possible without her unwavering support.


PLATINUM Reuser, Mr. Arno "The Curious" Reuser

Mr. Arno Reuser, Arno the Curious, is a Master Librarian who has done more for the practice of Open Source Inteligence (OSINT) in support of national security than anyone else in Europe.  He has been a pioneer in the explotiation of badly-delivered OSINT from private sector vendors, writing original PERL programs to make sense of their feeds; he has known how to make the most of the Internet; and above all, he has known how to find and engage human intellects around the world, each capable of producing unique tailored knowledge not available online or in print.  He is the Master Librarian of the OSINT world and all seven intelligence tribes.


PLATINUM Pelton, Robert Young Pelton

Mr. Robert Young Pelton is perhaps the greatest journalist-adverturer on the planet.  This is a man that gets kidnapped by accident, is recognized by the leader of the kidnappers, and is promptly released with apologies and an honor guard.  His book World’s Most Dangerous Places and his TV series Come Back Alive are among the most extraordinary “ground truth” offerings available to the public and admired by the spies.  In his every waking moment, in his every action, in his every report, he embodies the true spirit of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT).

PLATINUM Markowitz, Dr. Joseph Markowitz

Dr. Joseph Markowitz is without question the most qualified Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) pioneer in the ranks of those presently in or retired from U.S. government service.  As the only real chief of the Community Open Source Program Office (COSPO) he tried valiently to nurture a program being systematically undermined by both the leadership and the traditional broadcast monitoring service.  When he moved on to advise the Defense Science Board, he served America well by helping them fully integrate the need for both defense open source information collection and exploitation, and defense information sharing with non-governmental organizations.  His persistent but diplomatic efforts merit our greatest regard.


PLATINUM Hock, Dr. Ran Hock

Dr. Ran Hock has done more than any single individual to educate both government and private sector parties with respect to the value of the deep web.  He has single-handedly trained hundreds of individuals in the nuances of this major new intelligence resource base.  Emphasizing individual analytic skills and common sense rather than arcane expensive and generally unproductive technologies, he represents the intersection of integrity, intelligence, and intuition in the service of all legitimate governments and organizations.


PLATINUM Heibel, Professor Robert Heibel

Professor Robert Heibel, a veteran of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is unique for having established both an undergraduate and a graduate program in intelligence and research analysis.  His pioneering efforts have provided varied intelligence communities with very high-quality individuals, properly trained, at a time when their respective countries need them badly.  His development of training materials that did not exist, of a training program that did not exist, of a philosophy of education in the national service that did not exist anywhere else at the time, is worthy of the highest regard.


PLATINUM Edwards, Detective Steve Edwards, MBE, UK

Detective Steve Edwards, Member of the British Empire, has been the foremost law enforcement pioneer in the field of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT), and it is with heartfelt admiration that we applaud his recent recognition by the Queen of England.  His gentle, self-effacing, sober appreciation of the nuances of crime, private sector offerings, and government needs for innovation have enabled him to bring disparate personalities and capabilities together in a  most effective manner.


PLATINUM Jack Davis, Jack Davis

For over three decades, Jack Davis has been the heir to Sherman Kent and the mentor to all those who would strive to be the world’s most effective all-source intelligence analysts.  As a Central Intelligence Agency analyst and educator, he combines intellect, integrity, insight, and an insatiable appetite for interaction with all manner of individuals regardless of rank and disposition.  He is the most able pioneer of “analytic tradecraft,” the best proponent for the value of human analysis over technical processing, and one of those very special individuals who helped define the end of 20th Century centralized analysis and the beginning of 21st Century distributed multinational multiagency analysis.

Note: Awarded in advance of IOP '07 to celebrate Jack Davis' 50th uninterrupted year as an all-source analyst and mentor to all analysts.

PLATINUM Cerf, Dr. Vint Cerf, Parent of the Internet and Mentor to Google

Dr. Vinton Cerf, one of several founding parents of the Internet, inspiration to the global Internet Society, and today a mentor to Google, which seeks to place all information at the disposal of the people of the world, is without question one of a handful of individual who have impacted on every person's life, whose life's work could be said to prove the point that information can deter conflict and create stabilizing indigenous wealth.


PLATINUM Arnold, Mr. Steve Arnold

For his constant demonstration of the utility of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) in the understanding of social networks, emerging technologies, and cultural realities.  As a world-renowned authority on information and communications, with a deep understanding of the public policy value of open source information, he has made himself available around the world, and had much more influence than most realize.  His publication of the book, "The Google Legacy," is a mere milestone in one of the most distinguished information careers in the world.


Scotland Yard, Specialist Crime Directorate

IOP '06.  For their continuing diligence and professionalism in handling the difficult tactical and strategic needs of law enforcement intelligence operaitons aimed at disrupting and deterring terrorists, arms merchants, and other organized criminals.  With special recognition for Mr. Colin Ehren and Mr. Chris Stock, their accomplishments in using Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) to nurture public safety and order, set the standard for all others.


Prof. Michael Andregg, Chief OSINT Shrink (USA)

IOP '06.  For academic excellence and support to the dual concepts of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) across all seven tribes of intelligence, and the urgent need for intelligence reform, inclusive of a psychological re-orientation away from compartmented lunacy and toward inclusive openness.  Professor Andregg embodies the concept of Information Peacekeeping--conflict deterrence and stabilizing wealth creation through the sharing of open information in all languages.


Mr. Estolano "Ben" Benavides, U.S. Army Master Trainer

IOP '06.  To Mr. Estolano “Ben” Benavides, for being the original Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) ranger and pathfinder for the Long Gray Line long before OSINT became fashionable.  As an original contributor to the paper on open source information exploitation for the military intelligence officer under the leadership of LtCol Rob Simmons, USAR (today Congressman Rob Simmons, R-CT-02), and as a Master Trainer who cataloges useful web sites spanning all topics where open source information can contribute to Army and defense policy, operations, acquisitions, and logistics, Ben Benavides is not only in a class by himself, he is “the class before 1.”


Mr. Scott Bird, Mr. Scott Bird

IOP '06.  For over ten years, as a strictly personal interest, Mr. Scott Bird has studies Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) and its potential utility to increasing state revenue by detecting fraud and waste, and in reducing state costs by identifying faster, better, cheaper alternatives.  This year his work culminated in an extraordinary presentation of his personal views to an international audience of government and industry, views that were validated and appreciated by all present.  He is a pioneer in state-level OSINT applications, and recognized as such by the award of this Golden Candle.

Ms. Karen George, UK Govenrment Senior Librarian, Home Office

IOP '06.  For innovation and leadership at the national govenrment level, inclusive of vision and integrative direction in the library professional, with the direct consequence of developing and enhancing an environment of enthusiasm and appreciation for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) by civil servants and government officers in the United Kingdom.


Dr. Edvard Jacob, Chief OSINT Shrink (Rest of World)

IOP '06.  From the very early days of the emerging Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) movement, Dr. Edvard Jacob understood that it represented a psychological and sociological "break-out" from the lunacy of compartmented secret intelligence.  Over the years he has ministered to the many souls that have sought liberation and enlightenment by recognizing OSINT for what it is: a return to sanity and common sense, of, by, and for the people.


Mr. Kevin Scheid, Staff, 9-11 Commission

IOP '06.  To Mr. Kevin Scheid, Senior Intelligence Service, for his sustained professionalism in studying shortfalls related to national access to open sources of information of potential intelligence value, and in working very hard to introduce constructive recommendations at the national level.  While serving as senior staff to the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community, he contributed to their finding: “severely deficient” and their recommendation, “top priority for funding.”  It was not until the 9-11 Commission, however, that his diligence finally prevailed, with the inclusion on page 413 of the Report of an independent Open Source Agency.  Mr. Scheid is one of a handful of individuals who have truly served America with distinction in this vital arena where all nations and organizations are able to share intelligence.


Congressman Rob Simmons, (R-CT-02)

IOP '06.  To Congressman Rob Simmons (R-CT-02), who, as a pioneer in the 1990’s, won his first Golden Candle as a Lieutenant Colonel commanding an open source unit, later  officially recognized as the “Best Small Unit in the US Army Reserve.  As a Congressman, elected in 2000, he has been diligent and faithful to the Republic in pressing for open source intelligence (OSINT) reform across both the defense and the homeland security communities.  There is no more influential champion for public intelligence and open source information exploitation  serving the U.S. Government today.


United Nations, Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)

IOP '06.  Under the leadership of Dr. Patricia Lewis, and in pursuit of the basic mission of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the development of “ideas for peace and security,” this organization has demonstrated sustained excellence in the exploitation of open sources of information, and in the development of new forms of internal  information management and external information sharing, that suggest it is a potential catalyst for a surge in United Nations capabilities to leverage information to deter and resolve conflict, to reduce weapons of mass destruction as well as small arms and other contributing capabilities to genocide and instability, and to increase the prospects for peace across the many regions beset by complex emergencies that reduce human security.


» UNIDIR Home Page

Croatia, Mr. Mario Profaca

IOP '06.  To Mr. Mario Profaca, Croatian independent journalist, investigative reporter and war correspondent as well as a globally-recognized  WWW  pioneer, for "Mario's Cyberspace Station" web site, a OSIF goldmine and OSINT tool featured in Encyclopedia Britannica, MSN Encarta Encyclopedia, mainstream media,  net guides and university digital libraries world wide. Working as a sort of "One Man Agency", Mr. Profaca is also owner and editor of Spy News OSIF/OSINT Newsletter with 1600+ subscribers  and searchable archive of more than 60,000 items related to intelligence.  Investigative journalist and OSINT minded, he is very fast  in searching the internet and picking up underreported news and sources related to intelligence and terrorism.  He represents the future of public intelligence.


» Mario Profaca's Global Intelligence News Portal
» 2003 Article About "The Keyboard Guerrilla"

The Netherlands, MajGen Patrick Cammaert, Royal Marines

IOP '06.  MajGen Cammaert is recognized for his extraordinarily diplomatic and diligent furtherance of common sense and understanding at the highest levels of United Nations leadership, with respect to both the generic value of the process of intelligence to peacekeeping and conflict avoidance, and the specific value of open sources of information, including geospatial information, useful to the strategic mandate, the operational force composition, and the tactical campaign.  As Military Advisor to the Secretary General from 2003-2005, and then as Force Commander of UN Forces in the Congo, he devised and began implementation of the regional United Nations Joint Military Analysis Centre (UN JMAC) program.  His leadership with respect to a common standard of intelligence training for all UN civilian and uniformed personnel are likely to have a considerable impact on the future effectiveness of peacekeeping operations.


South Africa, Military and Civilian Intelligence Community

IOP '06  Under the general leadership of Minister of Intelligence Services Ronnie Kasrils, in partnership with an extraordinary collection of individuals across all elements of the South African intelligence community, and across all countries in the continent of Africa, successfully implemented both an open source software strategy, and an early warning and open source information sharing strategy.  Their continental initiative, in its openness, low cost, and mutually beneficial architecture, sets the standard for multinational, multiagency, multidisciplinary, multidomain information sharing (M4 IS).


» Minister's Budget Address of 17 May 2005
» Minister Karsil's Book, "Armed and Dangerous"
» Ms. Sandy Africa's Work in Progress (From 1994, PhD Dissertation in Progress)

STRONG ANGEL, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

IOP '06.  To the STRONG ANGEL team of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, for its extraordinary early grasp of the importance of both open source software and open source information as a means of enabling close collaboration and information-sharing in near-real-time between overt elements of the U.S. Government and all non-governmental organizations and their personnel who are the most important and skilled contributors to stabilization & reconstruction operations. 


» STRONG ANGEL Participants

USDI, Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence

IOP '06.  To the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence (USDI) for the extraordinary strategic vision and transformative impact of Dr. Stephen A. Cambone’s integrated approach to Strategic Communication, Open Source Intelligence (OSINT), and Joint Inter-Agency Collaboration Centers (JICC).  Under his leadership and that of LtGen William “Jerry” Boykin, USA, the extraordinary professionalism of Col Vincent Stewart, USMC has produced a “tipping point” initiative that will harness the distributed unclassified intelligence of the non-governmental organizations, other governments, and private sector partiers such that we will achieve the objective of universal coverage, 24/7, in all languages, at sub-state levels of granularity (tribes and villages).


Dr. Douglas M. Johnston
OSS '04: To Dr. Douglas M. Johnston, president and founder of the International Center for Religion and Diplomacy, for his path-finding efforts with regard to  Preventive Diplomacy as well as Religion and Conflict Resolution.  Among his many works, two stand out for defining a critical missing element in modern diplomacy: Religion, the Missing Dimension of Statecraft (Oxford University Press, 1994), and Faith-based Diplomacy:  Trumping Realpolitik (Oxford University Press, 2003).  He has restored the proper meaning of faith qua earnestness instead of faith qua zealotry, and this is a contribution of great importance.

Dr. Bert Little

OSS '04: To Dr. Bert Little, Medical and Scientific Researcher and Administrator, in recognition of applied research (data warehousing and mining, and other scientific investigation methods) in financial fraud and evidence based medicine.  His research has saved hundreds of millions of dollars in both arenas, both beneficial to the citizen-taxpayer.  He is the author of over one hundred medical and scientific journal articles, over a dozen book chapters, and of four books, with two additional books in press.  Currently he is Associate Vice President for Research and Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics, Tarleton State University, Texas A&M University System.

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

OSS '04: To the JHU-APL, and especially to Capt Joseph Mazzafro, USN (Ret) and Dr. Michael Vlahos, for sustained excellence in the integration of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) into their complex all-source analytic efforts in support of the Department of Defense.  Aided by the Gibson Library, they have set a new standard.

Mr. Paul van Tongeren

OSS '04: To Mr. Paul van Tongeren, leader, educator, advocate, and pioneer in the prevention and resolution of conflict.  As Executive Director of the European Centre for Conflict Prevention, his is a critical voice in facilitating peace through hinter-disciplinary study, cross-cultural communication, and the creation of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT).

Dr. Paul Ray

OSS '04: To Dr. Paul Ray, anthropologist, sociologist, political scientist, economist, and moralist, for his integrative and sustained efforts to understand and connect the power of the people to the problems of the Earth.  He has identified and studied 50 million Americans interested in changing the world, now known as the New Progressives.

Mr. William Greider

OSS '04: To Mr. William Greider, perhaps America’s most effective voice in favor of moral behavior.  His investigative journalism, national correspondence, and authorship, including Who Will Tell the People, One World, Ready or Not, and most recently, The Soul of Capitalism: Opening Paths to a Moral Economy, all empower the public.

Mr. David Kaplan

OSS '04: To Mr. David Kaplan, for his extraordinary exploitation of legal and ethical sources of information in the pursuit of investigative journalism on behalf of U.S. News & World Report.  His studies of North Korean government corruption and of Saudi Arabian government sponsorship of terrorism, represent the best practices in his field.

Mr. Steve Denning

OSS '04: To Mr. Steve Denning, organizational storyteller extraordinaire, whose book, The Springboard: How Storytelling Ignites Action in Knowledge-Era Organizations, represents a new level of innovation and action in the field of Knowledge Management, one operationalized by himself within the World Bank, offering ideas instead of money.

Dr. Herman E. Daly

OSS '04: To Dr. Herman E. Daly for his early role as a founder of the field of Ecological Economics, including his leadership role in the creation of the journal for this area of ethical study, and his body of work including Steady-State Economics (1977) and the most recent Ecological Economics and the Ecology of Economics (1999).

Dr. Tore Bjorgo

OSS '04: To Dr. Tore Bjorgo, Senior Research Fellow of the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), for his leadership of research on terrorism and international crime.  His authorship/editorship of ten books in the field represents the best combination of open sources, scholarship, and operationally-useful intelligence.

Mr. Tom Atlee
OSS '04: To Tom Atlee, founder of the Co-Intelligence Institute, for his sustained leadership in the vanguard of an informed democracy.  His book, The Tao of Democracy: Using Co-Intelligence to Create a World that Worlds for All is in the best traditions of Thomas Jefferson, who said “A Nation’s best defense is an educated citizenry.”

CASIS, Canadian Association for Security and Intelligence Studies (CASIS)
OSS '03: For its role as the premier professional intelligence association in the world, bringing together both scholars and practitioners for the purpose of understanding and improving the professionalization of intelligence.  Open to all nations, and reflecting the extraordinary role that Canada can play as a neutral friend to all, CASIS embodies the principle, (in the words of its current President, Tony Cambell) that "the truth is so important, it must be protected by a bodyguard of professionals."

Republic of South Africa, National Intelligence Unit
OSS '03: For its renewed national commitment to the creation of both an inter-agency open source intelligence architecture, and a regional early warning network heavily reliance on multi-lingual and multi-media open sources of information.  As Africa is now so clearly a test of global responsibility, the South African intelligence initiatives represent both a model for others to follow, and a portal through which other nations might make contributions while gaining access to localized intelligence about Africa's many complex emergencies.

Mr. Jack Davis, Central Intelligence Agency (Retired)
OSS '03: For a lifetime of leadership and innovation in the craft of all-source intelligence analysis, beginning with the creation of the "Friends of Analysis" online forum in the 1980's, the definition of new forms of analytic tradecraft in the 1990's, and--in the opening years of the 21st Century--the identification of new forms of value-added open source intelligence supportive of the all-source intelligence process.

MajGen Patrick Cammaert, Royal Netherlands Marine Corps
OSS '03: For his sustained service at all levels of command to United Nations forces, culminating in his appointment as Military Advisor to the Secretary General of the United Nations, where he has established a "best practices" unit and strives to implement the recommendations of the Brahimi Report as they pertain to the establishment of the new craft of peacekeeping intelligence.

Mr. Peter Modafferi, Chief of Detectives, Rockland County, New York
OSS '03: For his continuing efforts, within the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), to gain recognition for the value of intelligence to state and local law enforcement.

Dr. Simon J. Pak and Dr. John S. Zdanowicz, Penn State University and Florida International University
OSS '03: For their extraordinary demonstration, with a tangible value to the public of $50 billion a year in tax fraud savings, of new methods of academic investigation into public trade records, and the consequent discovery of specific instances of import-export money laundering and financial fraud, as well as weight variances associated with the smuggling of contraband and the mis-representation of cargo.

Mr. Yossef Bodansky, Author & Researcher
OSS '03: For his global multi-lingual open source investigations into terrorism, and his extraordinary professional achievement in writing and publishing BIN LADEN: The Man Who Declared War on America, years before the 9-11 World Trade Center demonstration of what well-funded suicidal terrorism can achieve when intelligence and policy both fail to focus on the threat.

Mr. Tom Copeland, LEXIS-NEXIS
OSS '03: For his sustained assistance to law enforcement and national government clients seeking to make better use of open sources of information, and his emerging contributions to the study of the new craft of intelligence with specific reference to terrorism.

Mr. Johan Truyens, Belgium
OSS '03: For his earnest and insightful contributions to the new craft of intelligence, and specifically for his investigation for and writing of the first Ph.D. dissertation to focus on defining and enhancing the role of open source intelligence in the affairs of the state, and of the United Nations.

Mr. Arno Reuser, Military Intelligence, The Netherlands
OSS '03: For his inspired leadership in migrating the Dutch military intelligence library from an archival to a discovery capability, to include value-added programming of incoming streams of raw data, and the virtual organization of distributed open source expertise.

Mr. David Jimenez, Texas Association of Crime & Intelligence Analysts
El Paso, Texas, 17 September 2002: 21st Century Emerging Leadership Award. Mr. David Jimenez, Texas Association of Crime & Intelligence Analysts. For his deep personal commitment and inspired professionalism in bringing together over 400 individuals from the six major intelligence tribes--national, military, law enforcement, state & local, business, & academic--to discuss in an open and unrestricted manner the new challenges and directions of intelligence.

Global Futures Partnership, Central Intelligence Agency
OSS '02: 21st Century Emerging Leadership Award. Global Futures Partnership, Central Intelligence Agency. Under the leadership of Carol Dumaine with her extraordinary vision, the Global Futures Partnership has created strategic learning forums bringing the rich perspectives of the outside world into the classified environment in a manner never before attempted. This official but revolutionary endeavor nurtures an outside-in channel for integrating a diversity of perspectives. It is a vanguard toward a future in which the lines between national and global intelligence, and between governmental and nongovernmental intelligence, are blurred into extinction.

Mr. David Moore and Ms. Lisa Kirzan, National Security Agency, USA
OSS '02: Mr. David Moore and Ms. Lisa Kirzan. For their personal commitment to nurturing intelligence education and the craft of intelligence analysis, in part by studying, defining, and then promulgating "best practices" from both within the government and from the external private sector.

Mr. Leonard Paul, Community Open Source Program Office
OSS '02: Mr. Leonard Paul, Chief of Operations, Community Open Source Program. For his personal commitment to upholding the Director of Central Intelligence Directive (DCID) mandating a Community Open Source Program (COSP); and for nurturing the Open Source Information System (OSIS), placing the interests of the larger Community above any lesser considerations.

Mr. William Hann, BSc (Hons), Free Pint
Mr. William Hann, BSc (Hons), Founder and Managing Editor, Free Pint. For his extraordinary personal effort in creating a community of over 48,000 volunteers who share information about information at He is a true open source cyber-citizen and intelligence minuteman, at the forefront of peer-to-peer computing, a model for us all.

Mr. Joseph V. Latella Sr., Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA), U.S. Army
Mr. Joseph V. Latella Sr., Land Information Warfare Activity. OSS '02: For his tireless effort as Chief, Open Source Division, in creating the first operationally-focused open source cell to provide timely, relevant, and unique support to globally-deployed members of the Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) of the U.S. Army. His new initiatives in media and trend analysis as well as Internet data harvesting have contributed directly to both Homeland Security and the Global War on Terrorism.

Dr. Richard Klavans, Center for Research Planning
OSS '02: Dr. Richard Klavans, President, Center for Research Planning. For his substantial contributions to the field of Industrial Technical Intelligence, where he has defined "best practices" and advanced the state of the art; and for his leadership in nurturing the discipline of business intelligence and the Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals.

Mr. William Crislip, National Ground Intelligence Center, U.S. Army
OSS '02: Mr. William Crislip, National Ground Intelligence Center. For his persistent and effective leadership, management of scarce resources, integration of open source into all-source analysis and establishment of one of the very few stable open source programs in the U.S. Department of Defense.

Foreign Military Studies Office (FSMO), Joint Reserve Intelligence Center, Fort Leavenworth
OSS '02: Foreign Military Studies Office, Joint Reserve Intelligence Center, Fort Leavenworth. For establishment of the Emerging Threat centers of excellence with emphasis on open source information, to include the establishment of a flexible World Basic Information Library and the direct support of operations by the Joint Forces Command Headquarters Homeland Security Open Source Intelligence Team based in the Ft. Leavenworth Joint Reserve Intelligence Center.

Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College
OSS '02: U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute. For consistent excellence in providing the leadership of the U.S. Army and the Department of Defense with provocative, thoughtful, open source information at the strategic level, and for building bridges between the U.S. military and the global strategic community. The efforts of Dr. Steve Metz, with his work on future war and strategic asymmetry, and Dr. Max Manwaring, with groundbreaking analysis of global instability and internal war, are especially noted.

Open Source Unit, Defence Command, Norway
OSS '02: Open Source Unit, Defence Command, Norway. For their innovation and discipline in establishing a uniquely effective means of monitoring open sources in over 29 languages including Dari, Farsi, and Pashto.

European Centre for Conflict Prevention, The Netherlands
OSS '02: European Centre for Conflict Prevention. For their consistent and superior efforts to make open sources of information more readily available to those who deal with conflicts and humanitarian emergencies, to include their surveys of conflict prevention and peacebuilding activities, and their lessons learned. Their web site,, is a global resource.

Mr. Guy Kolb, Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP)
OSS '01: Association Executive Mr. Guy Kolb. For his sustained and arduous efforts, from 1994 to 2000, as the first professional Executive Director of the Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP). His recruitment and management of staff and his innovative and energetic efforts led to a growth of SCIP from 2000 to 7000 members, and a growth in annual revenues from $0.5M to over $4M a year. He is the "first facilitator" of the new discipline of business intelligence, and has brought great credit to the American Society of Association Executives (ASAE).

Maj Kristan Wheaton, USA, The Warning Solution
OSS '01: Major Kristan Wheaton, U.S. Army. For restoring the tradition of the statesman-warrior, and bringing to bear a unique combination of intellect, legal training, faith in the military virtues, and a deep familiarity with the many sources of conflict in the Balkan and Aegean regions. In particular, Maj Wheaton is recognized for his incisive and essential documentation of the deep chasm between early warning reports from the analyst at the front, and the attention span of the preoccupied Commander-in-Chief—his book, The Warning Solution: Intelligent Analysis in the Age of Information Overload, may come to be regarded as "Ref A" for commanders and their intelligence professionals in the 21st Century.

Mr. William Shawcross, Author, United Kingdom
OSS '01: Author-Pilgrim William Shawcross. If our new Secretary of State, General Colin Powell, might be willing to listen to just one voice, his is the voice that must be heard. Few have done more to personally investigate and then accurately report the terrible suffering and instability that characterizes the vast majority of the planet's population, and few have presented so cogently the complexities and subtleties of peacekeeping and operations other than war.

Robert Young Pelton, Come Back Alive, Discovery TV
OSS '01: Adventurer Robert Young Pelton. For the finest, deepest, most useful individual effort at collecting and reporting "ground truth" in an open, usable, reliable manner. His work is an inspiration—and a very tough baseline—that no diplomatic, military, or intelligence organization has yet been able to match in terms of either relevance or cost effectiveness.

Researcher A.J. Jongman, Interdisciplinary Research Programme (PIOOM), Leiden University, The Netherlands
OSS '01: Researcher A. J. Jongman, Leiden University. For a brilliant combination of research, insight, and data visualization, in partnership with those associated with the Interdisciplinary Research Programme (PIOOM), resulting in the creation of the World Conflict & Human Rights Map 2000 that portrays so effectively the global conditions of instability that no great nation can ignore.

Mr. James Bamford, Author, The Puzzle Palace, Body of Secrets
OSS '01: Mr. James Bamford, Author. For extraordinary investigative journalism over the course of an entire career, but in particular for two signal contributions to the literature of intelligence—The Puzzle Palace (1982) and Body of Secrets (2001). Each of these served both the public and the National Security Agency by bringing to light both the heroism and vital contributions of its cyberspace warriors, and the deficiencies in government requiring repair. To have penetrated this target using only legal and ethical means—open sources—is a testament to the author's skill.

CINC Open Source Advisory Council (COSAC), U.S. Department of Defense
OSS '01: CINC Open Source Advisory Council (COSAC). For efforts to significantly improve the acquisition and exploitation of open sources information relevant to operational planning and mission execution.

Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
OSS '01: Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT). For expeditious and enlightened leadership as the vanguard of the future intelligence architecture for the Atlantic alliance, with a strong vision for the future intelligence needs of the Partners for Peace as well as the Mediterranean Dialog nations, and in particular for the rapid establishment of the NATO Open Source Intelligence Working Group.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), United Kingdom
OSS '01: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Monitoring. For sustained excellence in multi-media monitoring and the effective use of unclassified information, and in particular for setting the very highest standards for global multi-media monitoring and the rapid effective commercial dissemination of their production.

Dr. Dominic J. Farace, GreyNet (The Netherlands)
OSS 21 ('00): Dr. Dominic Farace, founder and leader of GreyNet, and the foremost champion of Grey Literature acquisition and exploitation.

Mr. Philippe Lejeune, Interpol and Belgium
OSS 21 Mr. Philippe Lejeune, graduate of the Master's program in open source intelligence exploitation offered by Mercyhurst College, and now the open source focal point for Interpol, for his persistence in pursuing an unpopular idea. As an individual, he is now the "fourth musketeer" within the European law enforcement open source leadership.('00):

Commander, Joint Intelligence Center, U.S. Transportation Command
OSS 21 ('00): U.S. Transportation Command, presented to the Commander, Joint Intelligence Center, for his leadership and the accomplishments of his subordinates in establishing a new model for austerely integrating active duty, reserve, and commercial capabilities to produce open source intelligence in support of a global mission in lower tier countries.

Director of Intelligence and Information Operations, U.S. Special Operations Command
OSS 21 ('00): U.S. Special Operations Command, presented to the Director of Intelligence and Information Operations Center for his leadership and the accomplishments of the Joint Intelligence Center in establishing the first operationally-focused Open Source Cell to provide timely, relevant, and unique support to U.S. Special Operations Forces

Satellite Centre, Western European Union
OSS 21 ('00): Satellite Centre of the Western European Union for its role in demonstrating that regional intelligence has great value, and that commercial imagery and open sources comprise the most essential foundation for such regional intelligence.

Open Source Intelligence Centre, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom
OSS 21 ('00): United Kingdom, presented to the Open Source Information Centre for its role in expanding the original concept beyond the Ministry of Defence to include the Home Office and Law Enforcement Agencies.

National Intelligence Service and Ministry of Defense (Joint Award), Republic of Germany
OSS 21 (00): Republic of Germany, presented jointly to the BND and the Ministry of Defense for their collaborative effort in creating an inter-agency OSINT architecture.

OSS ’99: None awarded.

Office of Strategic Crime Assessments, Australia
EuroIntel '99: Office of Strategic Crime Assessments, Australia, for its establishment of an open source intelligence support programme that is a model for others to follow.

National Intelligence Service, The Netherlands
EuroIntel '99: National Intelligence Service, The Netherlands, for its definition of and advocacy of a European Open Source Intelligence Network.

EUROPOL, European Community
EuroIntel '99: EUROPOL, newly authorized as an independent regional agency, for its definition and advocacy of a regional open source intelligence network in support of European law enforcement.

LtCol Ian Wing, Chief of Defence Force Fellow, Australia
PacIntel '99: LtCol Ian Wing, Chief of Defence Force Fellow, Australia, for his leadership and intellectual accomplishments in both authorship on intelligence reform and in the creation and management of Australia's 1998 conference on open source intelligence, an event that brought together over 300 senior participants from across the entire Australian government.

LCdr Sean Connors, USN, Virtual Information Center, U.S. Pacific Command
PacIntel '99: LCdr Sean Connors, USN, for his role in the development of the Virtual Information Center, U.S. Pacific Command (J-08), a non-intelligence activity sufficiently impressive to have been added to the Battle Staff of the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Command.

Colonel Barbara Fast, U.S. Army, 66th Military Intelligence Brigade
OSS '98: Colonel Barbara Fast, Commanding Officer, 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, because her senior enlisted personnel insisted we recognize her leadership in exploiting open sources.

Autometric (Now Boeing Autometric), United States of America
OSS '98: Autometric, Inc. for its development of a robust process for integrating all forms of commercial imagery with national imagery to produce digital three-dimensional geospatial information and intelligence.

National Intelligence Community, Republic of South Africa
OSS '98: The National Intelligence Community of South Africa for its extraordinary renaissance including its successful integration of black revolutionaries into a previously white bastion of secrecy.

Mr. Tom Will, Defense Intelligence Agency, USA
OSS '98: Mr. Tom Will, Open Source Program Manager, Defense Intelligence Agency, for spending over $10 million dollars in interesting ways.

Dr. Mark Maybury, MITRE
OSS '98: Dr. Mark Maybury, leader of MITRE's Open Source Processing Research Initiative (OSPRI), for his efforts to develop an integrated web-based system for knowledge development and information-sharing.

Mr. Harry Collier, Infonortics Ltd., United Kingdom
OSS '98: Mr. Harry Collier, founding and Managing Director of Infonortics Ltd.; founder of the Association for Global Strategic Information, and a leading practitioner of open source intelligence in support of business and technical objectives.

Captain Patrick Tyrrell, RN OBE LLB, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom
EuroIntel '98: Captain Patrick Tyrrell, RN OBE LLB, Commandant, Defense Intelligence and Security School, for his sponsorship of the open source intelligence movement within the Ministry of Defence, and his authorship of the seminal paper on a NATO/PfP Open Source Intelligence Programme.

i2 Ltd., United Kingdom
EuroIntel '98: i2, Ltd., and in particular to Mr. Mike Hunter, Managing Director, for developing data visualization technology contributing to improved open source exploitation processes.

Metropolitan Police of London (Scotland Yard), United Kingdom
EuroIntel '98: Metropolitan Police of London, United Kingdom, and Detective Constable Steve Edwards, for the establishment of the open source intelligence unit within the Intelligence Division, and the extraordinary savings achieved through the use of open sources instead of surveillance team to locate assorted felons and suspects.

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, United States of America
EuroIntel '98: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, United States of America, and Mr. Ruben Rodriguez Jr., Director of the Exploited Child Unit, for developing new methods of using the Internet to find and return missing and exploited children to their parents.8:

Ministry of the Interior, The Netherlands
EuroIntel '98: The Ministry of the Interior, The Netherlands, for its open source program under the direction of Mr. Frans de Ridder, and particularly its unique status as the only open source unit in the world that is co-equal to clandestine and technical collection units and under the same director of collection.

Open Source Intelligence Long Range Reconnaissance Unit, Swedish Military Intelligence & Security Directorate
EuroIntel '98: Swedish Military Intelligence & Security Directorate, for its establishment of the Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol unit for cyber-space, and its development of innovative methods of discovering and exploiting the 80% of the Internet that is not indexed. LtCol Mats Bjore, Founder and Leader.

Servizio Centrale di Investigazione sulla Criminalità Organizzata, Republic of Italy
EuroIntel '98: Servizio Centrale di Investigazione sulla Criminalità Organizzata (SCICO) della Guardia di Finanza, for its emerging commitment to the use of open sources in the war on organized crime.

SPOT IMAGE S.A., Republic of France
EuroIntel '98: SPOT IMAGE S.A. (France), for its uniquely robust commercial imagery architecture including two satellites and seventeen ground stations, an offering that was of enormous value during the Gulf War.

Mr. Jurgen Storbeck and Mr. Frans-Jan Mulschlegel, EUROPOL Drugs Unit
EuroIntel '98: EUROPOL Drugs Unit,  under Mr. Jurgen Storbeck as implemented by Mr. Frans-Jan Mulschlegel, for its establishment of a broad open source intelligence exploitation program.

Madame Danielle Cailloux, Comite Permanent de Controle des Services de Renseignements, Belgium
EuroIntel '98: Madame Judge Danielle Cailloux, Member of the Comite Permanent de Controle des Services de Renseignements, for her leadership in introducing open source intelligence into Belgian legislation on intelligence reform, and promulgating understanding of open sources of intelligence among senior leaders in the European community.

Commission on Secrecy, United States of America

OSS '97: Commission on Secrecy for its examination of relative transaction costs between classified and open sources.

Note:  Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-NY) served as sponsor and chairman.  Mr. Eric Beal, Staff Director.

Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation, USA
OSS '97: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation, for publication of the Maritime Security Report series using open sources

Loyola College, Maryland, USA
OSS '97: Loyola College in Maryland for the Strategic Intelligence web site that serves as a model for a voluntary but substantive web-based resource useful to all students of the intelligence profession.

Monterey Institute of International Studies, United States of America
OSS '97: Monterey Institute of International Studies, for its open source research model using graduate students with native language fluency to screen and extract multi-lingual open source information on proliferation.

Intelligence Community Librarians Committee, United States of America
OSS '97: Intelligence Community Librarians Committee, for innovation in open source exploitation in the face of institutional resistance.

Mr. Maurice Botbol, Intelligence Newsletter
OSS '97: Mr. Maurice Botbol, founder and managing editor of the Intelligence Newsletter, the best open source on global intelligence organizations.

Mr. Stephen Aftergood and Mr. John Pike, Federation of American Scientists
OSS '97: Mr. Stephen Aftergood and Mr. John Pike, Federation of American Scientists, for the Secrecy Bulletin and the Intelligence Reform web site.

Dr. Vipin Gupta and Mr. Frank Pabian, Sandia National Laboratory
OSS '97: Dr. Vipin Gupta and Mr. Frank Pabian, for their extraordinary paper on using commercial imagery to study Indian nuclear testing

Ms. Alice Cranor, Defense Intelligence Agency
OSS '97: Alice Cranor, DIA OSINT program manager and innovator, for her constant advocacy of open source intelligence in support of science and technology collection requirements.

Aspin-Brown Commission, United States of America

OSS '96: Commission on the Roles and Missions of the U.S. Intelligence Community, for its documented findings that U.S. Intelligence Community access to open sources is severely deficient and should be a top priority for funding and a top priority for DCI attention.

Note:  The Honorable Les Aspin and then, upon his death, The Honorable Harold Brown, served as Chair.  Mr. Britt Snider, Staff Director.  Ms. Phyllis Provost-McNeil orchestrated the testimony and edited the findings on open source intelligence.

Swedish Open Source Cooperation Forum, Sweden
OSS '96: Swedish Open Source Cooperation Forum, for informally bringing together the civilian, military, business, and academic open source intelligence coordinators, and creating the first national-level coordinating body for the collection of open sources.

Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom
OSS '96: Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom, for the establishment of the Open Source Information Centre in Whitehall.

Canadian Security and Intelligence Service, Canada
OSS '96: Director General, Canadian Security and Intelligence Service, for publishing unclassified intelligence and attempting to make optimal use of international open sources of information.

Community Open Source Program Office, Office of the Director of Central Intelligence
OSS '96: Community Open Source Program Office, Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, for establishing the Open Source Information System.

Captain Patrick George, Central Bureau of Investigation, Belgium
OSS '96: Captain Patrick George, Head, Criminal Analysis Bureau, Central Bureau of Investigation, Belgium, for establishing an open source intelligence analysis unit and an open source intelligence network across all of Belgium.

Mr. Abram Hoebe, Criminal Intelligence Division, The Netherlands
OSS '96: Mr. Abram Hoebe, Criminal Intelligence Division, The Netherlands, for innovative exploitation of open sources in countering transnational crime in and around the port of Rotterdam.

Mr. Robert Heibel, Mercyhurst College
OSS '96: Mr. Robert Heibel, founding Director, Research and Intelligence Analysis Program, Mercyhurst College, for getting international law enforcement organizations interested in open source intelligence, and for training students in open sources and methods.

Mr. John W. Fisher III, Defense Intelligence Agency
OSS '96: Mr. John W. Fisher III, COTR for Open Source Intelligence Training, Joint Military Intelligence Training College, for his sponsorship of the OSINT HANDBOOK.

Col James "Snake" Clark, USAF, United States Air Force
OSS '96: Colonel (Select) James “Snake Clark, Project Manager for EAGLE VISION, for working around the bureaucracy and delivering a C-130 transportable ground station through which commercial imagery could be immediately exploited by tactical commanders and air crews.

SPOT Image Corporation, United States of America
OSS '95: SPOT Image Corporation (USA), for its extraordinary overnight support of "The Burundi Exercise" that was instrumental in persuading the Aspin/Brown Commission that open source intelligence is a discipline in its own right.

LEXIS-NEXIS, United States of America
OSS '95: LEXIS-NEXIS, for its extraordinary overnight support of "The Burundi Exercise" that was instrumental in persuading the Aspin/Brown Commission that open source intelligence is a discipline in its own right.

Institute for Scientific Information, United States of America
OSS '95: Institute for Scientific Information, for its extraordinary overnight support of "The Burundi Exercise" that was instrumental in persuading the Aspin/Brown Commission that open source intelligence is a discipline in its own right.

Jane's Information Group, United Kingdom
OSS '95: Jane’s Information Group, for its extraordinary overnight support of "The Burundi Exercise" that was instrumental in persuading the Aspin/Brown Commission that open source intelligence is a discipline in its own right.

Ms. Helen Burwell, Association of Independent Information Professionals
OSS '95: Ms. Helen Burwell, Publisher, Burwell World Directory of Information Brokers, for her pioneering role in creating the Association of Independent Information Professionals and the international network of professional information brokers.

Mr. Chris Goggans, Electronic Security Engineer
OSS '95: Mr. Chris Goggans, Electronic Security Engineer, for "stuff".

Col Mike Pheneger, U.S. Army (Ret.), U.S. Special Operations Command
OSS '95: Col Mike Pheneger, USA (Ret.), former J-2 U.S. Special Operations Command, for his paradigm-shattering unclassified exposures of our lack of tactical military maps for 90% of the world, and our enormous over-investment in duplicative and contradictory orders of battle.

National Technical Information Service, United States of America
OSS '95: National Technical Information Service, for is development of both a web-based electronic access capability and a distributed remote printing agreement with Kinko's.

Mr. Winn Schwartau, Interpact and InfoWarCon
OSS '95: Mr. Winn Schwartau, Author, INFORMATION WARFARE: Chaos on the Electronic Superhighway, for being the first person in America to brief Congress on the possibility of an electronic "Pearl Harbor", and for his sustained efforts to create concepts and doctrine for asymmetric conflict.

Dr. Stevan Dedijer, Office of Strategic Services and University of Lund
OSS '94: Dr. Stevan Dedijer, Office of Strategic Services in Yugoslavia, originator of the field of business intelligence as a discipline, and over-all "wild man" of open source intelligence.

Dr. Douglas Englebart, Pioneer (Internet, Desktop Tools, Collaborative Work)
OSS '94: Dr. Douglas Englebart, Inventor, for creating the tools that made possible the Internet and all that followed from electronic mail, graphics, hyper-links, ans mice; and for his current commitment to distributed online collaborative work.

Mr. Emmanuel Goldstein (P), 2600: The Hacker Magazine, and Hackers on Planet Earth
OSS '94: Emmanuel Goldstein, Leader of 2600 hacker community, for his creation of a hacker journal and his sponsorship of the Hackers on Planet Earth conference in New York City that brought over 750 phreakers out in the open.

Dr. James Holden-Rhodes, Los Alamos National Laboratory and University of New Mexico
OSS '94: Dr. James Holden-Rhodes, author of SHARING THE SECRETS: Open Source Intelligence and the War on Drugs, for his extraordinary development of the early open source intelligence techniques applied to foreign language materials and contributing to the strategic and tactical success of both the U.S. Southern Command and the Drug Enforcement Agency.

Dr. Ross Stapleton-Gray, Central Intelligence Agency
OSS '94: Dr. Ross Stapleton-Gray, CIA Internet guru and policy entrepreneur, recognized by the National Science Foundation as one of America's premier cyber-nauts.

Mr. Tim Hendrickson and PATHFINDER, National Ground Intelligence Center, U.S. Army
OSS '94: U.S. Army Project PATHFINDER, under the leadership of Mr. Tim Hendrickson of the National Ground Intelligence Center, for moving forward with the objective of creating a useful analyst's toolkit.

434th Military Intelligence Detachment, United States Army
OSS '94: U.S. Army 434th Military Intelligence Detachment, for its creation of the first general overview of the utility of open sources to the military.  LtCol Rob Simmons, Commanding.

Ministry of the Interior, The Netherlands
OSS '94: Ministry of the Interior, The Netherlands, for its establishment of an official open source intelligence unit, the first known unit to exist in Europe, and for its development of the centralized discovery, decentralized exploitation model for Internet data mining.

Dr. Loch Johnson, Regent Professor, University of Georgia
OSS '94: Dr. Loch K. Johnson, dean of the intelligence reform movement, for his lifetime of achievement but especially for his seminal article, "The Seven Sins of Strategic Intelligence".

Mr. David Young, Oxford Analytica
OSS '94: Mr. David R. Young, founder of Oxford Analytica, for creating a viable variation of the President's Daily Brief using only open sources of information and addressing the needs of Chief Executive Officers and Prime Ministers.

Mr. Rop Gonggrijp, Hac-Tic and Internet Service Provider <xs4all>
OSS '93: Mr. Rop Gonggrijp, Dutch leader of the Hac-Tic group, founder of <xs4all>, for his role as one of the leaders of the movement to both open and protect international networks.

Mr. William McDonald, Hacker-Engineer
OSS '93: Mr. William McDonald, Hacker-Engineer, for "stuff".

Mr. Roger Karraker, "Highways of the Mind" in Whole Earth Review
OSS '93: Mr. Roger Karraker, Author of “Highways of the Mind” in Whole Earth Review, the seminal work inspiring the grass roots hijacking of the National Information Infrastructure.

Mr. Samuel Mercier, France
OSS '93: Mr. Samuel Mercier, advocate for open source intelligence in France and contributor to an understanding of open sources by key French military generals and admirals.

Mr. Paul Hoffman, Earthseal Entrepreneur
OSS '93: Mr. Paul Hoffman, EarthSeal Entrepreneur, for creating an affordable sticker of the NASA photograph of the Whole Earth that inspired an entire generation of environmentalists and others committed to openness.

Mr. John Berbrich, Defense Intelligence Agency
OSS '93: Mr. John Berbrich, Director for Science & Technology, Defense Intelligence Agency, for his attempts to sponsor improved open source exploitation within the defense intelligence community.

Mr. Alessandro Politi, Western European Union
OSS '93: Mr. Alessandro Politi, developer of “Intelligence Minuteman” concept and one of the leading advocates of open source intelligence within the Western European Union.

MajGen Ken Minihan, USAF, U.S. Air Force
OSS '93: MajGen Ken Minihan, Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, U.S. Air Force, for his attempts to sponsor improved open source exploitation with respect to Chinese telecommunications and other matters.

Mr. William Ruh, The MITRE Corporation
OSS '93: Mr. William Ruh, The MITRE Corporation, for his work on advanced information technology processing initiatives with enormous potential for improving our ability to exploit open sources.

Ms. Bonnie Carroll, Information International Associates, Inc.
OSS '92: Ms. Bonnie Carroll, President, Information International Associates, Inc. for pioneering efforts with the National Federation of Abstracting and Indexing Services, and her role as Secretariat to the CENDI (Commerce, Energy, NASA, Defense, Interior) Working Group on Information .

Ms. Diane Webb, Central Intelligence Agency
OSS '92: Ms. Diane Webb, Analyst, Office of Scientific & Weapons Research, CIA, for developing the functional requirements for CATALYST (Computer Aided Tools for the Analysis of Science & Technology).

Mr. George Marling, U.S. Intelligence Community Staff
OSS '92: Mr. George Marling for his earlier role in developing the HUMINT Committee Open Source Study for the U.S. Intelligence Community.


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