Army War College

Carlisle Pennsylvania

OPEN SOURCE INTELLIGENCE FOR THE MILITARY

Overview Brief History (OSS, CIA, FBIS, MCIA, COSPO, EAGLE VISION, DoD R&D) OSINT and All-Source (Jig-Saw Puzzle, Planning to Tactical) Knowledge Terrain: Information Continuum Definitions: Data, Information, and Intelligence Commander's Prerogative: Time, Length, and Level of Classification Lack of National Information Strategy to Integrate Open and Secret Intelligence

OSINT and the Military Four Warrior Classes (High-Low Tech/Brute-Seer) Levels of Analysis Strategic (I&W, Demographic, Cultural) Operational (Planning Factors) Tactical (Imagery & Maps/Encyclopedic Information) Technical (Parameters including Civil/Military C4I Infrastructure) MCIA Analysis Model (Military, Geographic, Civil) Military Sustainability, Geographic Location, Civil Allies Military Availability, Geographic Resources, Civil Instability Military Reliability, Geographic Terrain, Civil Psychology Military Lethality/Accuracy, Geographic Atmosphere, Civil Infrastructure Libyan Tanks M-1A1 Procurement Aviation Acquisition & Employment Burundi Exercise Jane's Information Group (tribes, summaries, 20-80) LEXIS-NEXIS (stringers and sources) Institute of Scientific Information (academic experts) Oxford Analytica (2 pagers, David Young/NSC, wire/desk/network) East View Publications (Soviet 1:100,000 military topo maps) SPOT Image (1:50 with contour lines, precision, NOE NRT interactive)

Future War: Some Considerations Strategic Generalizations--Impact on Forces of the Future Focus on People & Conditions (Instead of Things & Combat) Foreign Language Skills & Coalition/Civilian Interoperability

OSINT Center Requirements Officer Internet Specialist Commercial Online Specialist Primary Research Specialist External Services Specialist Analyst/Briefing Officer

Overview of Some National Open Source Intelligence Practices (Time Permitting) Australia--Pacific Rim Tier 4 burden-sharing option Canada--80% from open sources, unclassified production France--economic intelligence Germany--still a sweat-shop, creeping forward Israel--precision-strike, U.S. information brokers, FOIA masters Italy--you can just imagine... Japan--6,000 newsprint pages a day collected, private sector lead Netherlands--reorganization of collection, analysis; Internet centralized discovery, decentralized exploitation; possible lead for European OSINT Council Quebec--harbinger of future provincial/state endeavors Singapore--National Computer Board, wiring the island Sweden--triad Committee, S&T attaches, Internet, "smart Nation" United Kingdom--C4I (I=Info), DIS, Foreign Office, Board of Trade

Some Generalizations About OSINT Practices in Other Governments (Time Permitting) No one has a national information strategy No one has a significant lead on U.S. Government-industry relationships are all terribly ineffective Private sector collection, translation, & analysis capabilities not used Bureaucracy and control of money are the show-stoppers Amount of money spent on OSINT by government is marginal Virtually nothing is spent on technical applications: focus on content Consumers do their own OSIF, Producers do not filter/evaluate

Conclusion Changing Balance Between Secrets and Open Source Changing Role of the Analyst Obstacles to Change--Commanders' Initiatives Needed

Core OSINT Readings (Optional for Sponsor/Student Information) OSS '95 and OSS '96 Proceedings (includes Selected Readings in Open Source Intelligence and Open Source Intelligence: Professional Handbook 1.1) OSS NOTICES (monthly 30-40 page newsletter with no advertising) <http://oss.net>, all 1995 issues of OSS NOTICES free