Joint Military Intelligence Training Center

National Senior Intelligence Course



Mr. Robert D. Steele, Chairman & CEO


5 August 1996

Open Source Intelligence--Background

Introduction Open source roots (OSS, CIA); Copeland anecdote USMC Intelligence Center, lessons learned about OSINT SOUTHCOM and DOE, lessons learned about OSINT and drugs CIA Training, lessons learned about OSINT and consumers Joe Nye's Jig-Saw Puzzle: OSINT in perspective OSINT is the foundation for reinventing classified disciplines

The Challenge of Change: Five Revolutions Changing Threat--Four Warrior Classes Changing Demands--Law enforcement, citizens as consumers Changing Fiscal Options--fewer people, fewer dollars Changing Knowledge Terrain--private sector intelligence Changing Technology--creating a virtual intelligence community

The Open Source Environment Information Continuum (Nine Sectors) Schools, Universities, Libraries, Businesses, Private Investigators/Information Brokers, Media, Government, Defense, Intelligence Information Commons versus the Iron/Bamboo/Plastic Curtains Distributed (90%) versus Central (10%) Intelligence Hard Copy (90%) versus Electronic (10%) Information Center of Gravity is in the private sector

Overview of Some National Open Source Intelligence Practices

Australia--Pacific Rim Tier 4 burden-sharing option Canada--80% from open sources, unclassified production France--economic intelligence Germany--still a sweat-shop, creeping forward Israel--precision-strike, U.S. information brokers, FOIA masters Italy--you can just imagine... Japan--6,000 newsprint pages a day collected, private sector lead Netherlands--reorganization of collection, analysis; Internet centralized discovery, decentralized exploitation; possible lead for European OSINT Council Quebec--harbinger of future provincial/state endeavors Singapore--National Computer Board, wiring the island Sweden--triad Committee, S&T attaches, Internet, "smart Nation" United Kingdom--C4I (I=Info), DIS, Foreign Office, Board of Trade

Some Generalizations About OSINT Practices in Other Governments

No one has a national information strategy No one has a significant lead on U.S. Government-industry relationships are all terribly ineffective Private sector collection, translation, & analysis capabilities not used Bureaucracy and control of money are the show-stoppers Amount of money spent on OSINT by government is marginal Virtually nothing is spent on technical applications: focus on content Consumers do their own OSINT, Producers do not filter/evaluate

ACCESS: Intelligence in the Age of Information

Data, Information, Intelligence: Emphasis on OSINT Achieves Savings, Satisfies Broader Range of Requirements Enables Clandestine and Technical Focus on Hard Targets

Secrecy Paradigm is Counterproductive--Quick Open Access is Key Information = Content + Context + Time Obtain Information Before It is Classified Secret Security through Speed and Obscurity

Distributed Collection and Filtering is Critical-- Human Filtering, Leveraging External Overhead Essential Analyst as Manager of Network of Overt Sources Analyst as Manager of Private Sector Outsourcing Analyst as "Recruiter/Handler" of Consumers

Vulnerabilities in Both Government and Industry Data Integrity, Availability, Security Cost of Uninformed Decisions

National Intelligence--The Community Tomorrow?

OSINT as Foundation COSPO Needs Operational Authority Center for the Exploitation of Open Sources (CEOS) DoD Open Source Intelligence Center (RMA Initiative) Community Intelligence Reserve Program FBIS--Ace in the Hole or Wasted Dollars? Harness Rest of Government Joint Open Source Intelligence Training Center InfoLink 2000

Consolidated Functional Management of Resources Director of National Intelligence DDNI for Administration (including Training & Security) DDNI for Research & Development DDNI for Communications & Computing (C2) DDNI for Collection DDNI for Production

National Intelligence Agency Consolidate Inter-Agency Admin, R&D, and C2 Resources Dramatically Expand National Intelligence Council NIO for Every Customer Assistant NIOs for Topics Revitalize Directorate of Intelligence Take Over Stations (Collection Management, Onsite Analysis) Adapt National Collection Division to Overt Collection Integrate FBIS into Operational COSPO Oversight of CEOS and OSINT Training for ROG Oversight of Intelligence Reserve and Consumer Training Refocus on NRT Decision-Support and Estimative Intelligence Exploit OSINT on U.S., Do Strategic Competitive Intelligence

Clandestine Services Agency Completely Non-Official Cover (Both Field and HQS) Double the Budget, Half the People Residents, Recruiters, Circuit Riders Phase Out Existing Agents Withdraw from Stations Must Be a Combat Support Agency Integrated IG and Oversight Committee

National Mapping & Imagery Agency Integrate Overhead, Foreign Overhead, Air Breather, Unmanned Remains a Combat Support Agency Must Make the Tough Personnel Decisions in Senior Ranks EARTHMAP 2001 Project--Complete 1:50,000 Coverage Earmark Dollars Now, Fence Those Dollars Split Third World Imagery Between Two Major Players

National Security Agency Significantly Increased Tactical SIGINT Program Compartmented Clandestine Support Office in CSA Explicitly Include Internet Monitoring in Charter

Joint National Military Intelligence Command Consolidate Service Dollars, Equipment, & People Integrate Tactical, Theater, and Strategic Capabilities Operational Control of All Programs and Units Global Intelligence Network, Surge Capabilities Executive Agent for Virtual Intelligence Agency NMJIC OSINT Center (RMA Initiative) Military Intelligence Reserve Global Experts in World Wide Web Open Source Burden Sharing Program with Allies Electronic Security & Counterintelligence Program Create Separate Defense Program Elevate DISA Establish FBI Division for ES&C Blue Ribbon Commission on Due Diligence Protect Private Sector Including Foreign Taxpayers

Counterintelligence Amnesty Program Unconventional Masterstroke FBI Must Take the Lead with President and DCI Should be Done Before Aspin Commission Wraps Up Clears the Deck--And May Call into Question Past Investments OSINT and CI are the Pillars--Need to Get Them Both Right

Conclusion: Making the Great Revolution

Redefining Our Premises and Our Government National Security (Arlington Institute) National Competitiveness (National Economic Council) Domestic versus Foreign, Public versus Private Data, Information, and Intelligence: the "Smart Nation" The Community Tomorrow (USMC Quantico Example) Classified Intelligence, Effective Government Information Harnessing the Distributed Intelligence of the Private Sector Smart Nation Creating New Knowledge = National Intelligence

National Intelligence Strategy--The Legislation National IQ: three meanings (intelligence, innovation, integration) Connectivity--Global, Corporate, and Individual--NII/GII a good start Content--National Information Foundation/distributed CoE Coordination of Research & Development--Common Toolkits Communications & Computing Security--Standards, Testing, Education

Harnessing the Distributed Intelligence of the Whole Earth Need "intelligence" now more than ever Center of gravity is in the private sector Impossible to "centralize" intelligence expertise Must change how we train, equip, and organize classified intelligence "Virtual Intelligence Community" is the necessary end-state Will always need spys and satellites--but not for schoolboy errands

For More Information

Original materials, including one complete year of OSS NOTICES (roughly 400 pages) information about open sources, systems, and services, go to: <>; older information also available free in <> via gopher, wais, or ftp. For a sample issue of OSS NOTICES in the mail, fax address and "Request Sample Issue" to (703) 242-1711.